Surfaces and Essences: Analogy as the Fuel and Fire of Thinking

Analogy is the middle of all thinking.

This is the easy yet unorthodox premise that Pulitzer Prize–winning writer Douglas Hofstadter and French psychologist Emmanuel Sander safeguard of their new paintings. Hofstadter has been grappling with the mysteries of human proposal for over thirty years. Now, along with his trademark wit and detailed expertise for making complicated principles bright, he has partnered with Sander to place forth a hugely novel point of view on cognition.

We are consistently confronted with a swirling and intermingling multitude of ill-defined events. Our brain’s activity is to attempt to make feel of this unpredictable, swarming chaos of stimuli. How does it achieve this? The ceaseless hail of enter triggers analogies galore, assisting us to pinpoint the essence of what's happening. usually this suggests the spontaneous evocation of phrases, occasionally idioms, occasionally the triggering of anonymous, long-buried memories.

Why did two-year-old Camille proudly exclaim, “I undressed the banana!”? Why do those that listen a narrative frequently blurt out, “Exactly an analogous factor occurred to me!” while it used to be a very assorted occasion? How will we realize an competitive motive force from a split-second look in our rearview reflect? What in a friend’s comment triggers the offhand answer, “That’s simply bitter grapes”? What did Albert Einstein see that made him suspect that mild comprises debris while a century of analysis had pushed the ultimate nail within the coffin of that long-dead idea?

The solution to most of these questions, in fact, is analogy-making—the meat and potatoes, the guts and soul, the gasoline and fireplace, the gist and the crux, the lifeblood and the wellsprings of inspiration. Analogy-making, faraway from occurring at infrequent durations, happens in any respect moments, defining considering from most sensible to toe, from the tiniest and such a lot fleeting ideas to the main artistic clinical insights.

Like Gödel, Escher, Bach earlier than it, Surfaces and Essences will profoundly improve our knowing of our personal minds. by means of plunging the reader into a rare number of colourful events regarding language, proposal, and reminiscence, via revealing little by little the continuously churning cognitive mechanisms ordinarily thoroughly hidden from view, and through studying in them one vital, invariant core—the incessant, subconscious quest for powerful analogical hyperlinks to earlier experiences—this ebook places forth a thorough and deeply outstanding new imaginative and prescient of the act of thinking.

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Philosophical Temperaments: From Plato to Foucault (Insurrections: Critical Studies in Religion, Politics, and Culture)

By Peter Sloterdijk

Peter Sloterdijk turns his willing eye to the background of western idea, engaging in colourful readings of the lives and ideas of the world's such a lot influential intellectuals. that includes nineteen vignettes wealthy in own characterizations and theoretical research, Sloterdijk's companionable quantity casts the advance of philosophical pondering now not as a buildup of compelling books and arguments yet as a lifelong, intimate fight with highbrow and non secular pursuits, full of as many pitfalls and derailments as transcendent breakthroughs.

Sloterdijk delves into the paintings and instances of Aristotle, Augustine, Bruno, Descartes, Foucault, Fichte, Hegel, Husserl, Kant, Kierkegaard, Leibniz, Marx, Nietzsche, Pascal, Plato, Sartre, Schelling, Schopenhauer, and Wittgenstein. He provocatively juxtaposes Plato opposed to shamanism and Marx opposed to Gnosticism, revealing either the important exterior impacts shaping those intellectuals' notion and the thrill and beauty generated by means of the applying in their considering within the genuine global. The philosophical "temperament" as conceived by means of Sloterdijk represents the uniquely inventive come across among the brain and a various array of cultures. It marks those philosophers' singular achievements and the designated dynamic at play in philosophy as an entire. Creston Davis's creation info Sloterdijk's personal temperament, surveying the prestigious thinker's highbrow context, rhetorical type, and philosophical persona.

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The Perennial Philosophy

By Aldous Huxley

An encouraged accumulating of spiritual writings that unearths the "divine fact" universal to all faiths, accumulated by way of Aldous Huxley

"The Perennial Philosophy," Aldous Huxley writes, "may be stumbled on one of the conventional lore of peoples in each area of the area, and in its totally built types it has a spot in each of the better religions."

With nice wit and attractive intellect—drawing on a various array of faiths, together with Zen Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Christian mysticism, and Islam—Huxley examines the non secular ideals of assorted spiritual traditions and explains how they're united by means of a typical human craving to adventure the divine. The Perennial Philosophy comprises choices from Meister Eckhart, Rumi, and Lao Tzu, in addition to the Bhagavad Gita, Tibetan booklet of the useless, Diamond Sutra, and Upanishads, between many others.

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The Wonder of Consciousness: Understanding the Mind through Philosophical Reflection (MIT Press)

Consciousness is an excellent factor. but when we're absolutely to understand the sweetness of awareness, we have to articulate what it really is approximately recognition that makes it such a fascinating and demanding phenomenon to us. during this e-book, Harold Langsam argues that attention is intelligible -- that there are sizeable proof approximately cognizance that may be recognized a priori -- and that it's the intelligibility of attention that's the resource of its ask yourself. Langsam first examines the way in which definite beneficial properties of a few of our awake states intelligibly relate us to beneficial properties of the realm of which we're wide awake. awareness is extensively diverse from every little thing else on the earth, and but it brings us into intimate reference to the issues of the realm. Langsam then examines the causal powers of a few of our wide awake states. a few of these causal powers are made up our minds in an intelligible manner by way of the specific natures in their awake states: if you happen to be aware of what recognition is, then you definately may also be aware of (by the mere workout of your intelligence) a few of what recognition does. Langsam's purpose is to get the philosophy of brain clear of the never-ending and distracting debates approximately no matter if awareness is actual or no longer. He indicates that there are sizeable issues that we will be able to notice approximately recognition simply via philosophical mirrored image. The thinker who takes this strategy isn't really ignoring the empirical evidence; he's reflecting on those evidence to find additional, nonempirical facts.

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A Dictionary of Philosophical Logic

By Roy T. Cook

This dictionary introduces undergraduate and post-graduate scholars in philosophy, arithmetic, and computing device technological know-how to the most difficulties and positions in philosophical good judgment. assurance comprises not just key figures, positions, terminology, and debates inside of philosophical common sense itself, yet matters in comparable, overlapping disciplines reminiscent of set thought and the philosophy of arithmetic besides. Entries are widely cross-referenced, in order that every one access might be simply situated in the context of wider debates, thereby supplying a priceless reference either for monitoring the connections among recommendations inside of common sense and for studying the way within which those innovations are utilized in different philosophical disciplines.

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Media of Reason: A Theory of Rationality (New Directions in Critical Theory)

By Matthias Vogel, Darrell Arnold

Matthias Vogel demanding situations the assumption, dominant in modern philosophy, that cause is set exclusively by means of our discursive, linguistic talents as communicative beings. In his view, the medium of language isn't the basically strength of cause. tune, artwork, and different nonlinguistic varieties of conversation and figuring out also are major. Introducing an expansive thought of brain that money owed for hugely refined, penetrative media, Vogel advances a unique perception of rationality whereas releasing philosophy from its specific attachment to linguistics.

Vogel's media of cause treats all types of figuring out and notion, propositional and nonpropositional, as vital to the procedures and construction of information and pondering. by means of constructing an account of rationality grounded in a brand new belief of media, he increases the profile of the prelinguistic and nonlinguistic dimensions of rationality and advances the Enlightenment undertaking, buffering it opposed to the postmodern critique that the move fails to understand aesthetic experience.

Guided through the paintings of Jürgen Habermas, Donald Davidson, and more than a few media theorists, together with Marshall McLuhan, Vogel rebuilds, if he doesn't remake, the connection between a number of sorts of media―books, videos, newspapers, the web, and television―while providing an unique and intriguing contribution to media theory.

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Nietzsche: The Birth of Tragedy and Other Writings (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy)

By Friedrich Nietzsche

The beginning of Tragedy is without doubt one of the seminal philosophical works of the fashionable interval. The theories built during this rather brief textual content have had a profound impression at the philosophy, literature, tune and politics of the 20th century. This variation offers a brand new translation via Ronald Speirs and an advent via Raymond Geuss that units the paintings in its historic and philosophical context. the amount additionally contains essays on comparable themes that Nietzsche wrote throughout the comparable interval.

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Aristotle's Ethics: Critical Essays (Critical Essays on the Classics Series)

The ethics of Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), and advantage ethics mostly, have visible a resurgence of curiosity during the last few a long time. not do utilitarianism and Kantian ethics on their lonesome dominate the ethical panorama. additionally, Aristotelian topics fill out that panorama, with such matters because the significance of friendship and feelings in an excellent lifestyles, the position of ethical notion in clever selection, the character of happiness and its structure, ethical schooling and habituation, discovering a strong domestic in modern ethical debate. The essays during this quantity characterize the simplest of that discuss. Taken jointly, they supply an in depth research of important arguments in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. yet they do greater than that. every one exhibits the long-lasting curiosity of the questions Aristotle himself subtly and complexly increases within the context of his personal modern discussions.

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